Treatment – Surgery
Several Types of Cancer Surgery:
Curative Surgery: This type of surgery mainly involves the removal of a tumour i.e., affected portion. This surgery works well on localized cancers, as they haven’t spread to the other body parts. The procedure includes radiation therapy or chemotherapy to get a conclusion that all cancer affected cells have been removed. Types of Curative Surgery:
- ♦ Robotic Surgery
- ♦ Minimally Invasive Surgery
- ♦ Preventive Surgery
- Preventive Surgery helps in prevention of cancer from occurring. This includes the process of removing precancerous polyps from the body so that it stops polyps becoming vicious. Suppose if a woman is affected by breast cancer and was at high risk, then she may decide to have her breasts removed rather than getting suffered from cancer which may lead to death in future.
- ♦ Reconstructive Surgery:
- The name itself describes that reconstruction of parts after the cancer treatment, which means getting back to the normal functioning conditions of the body parts. The most regenerative type of surgery is breast reconstruction and other examples are testicular implants and facial reconstruction.
- ♦ Biopsy (Diagnostic Surgery):
- In this Surgery, some of the cancer affected or total portion is removed and held for examination, where a tumour is cancerous or not.
- Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA): A need is inserted into a tumour and the material is drawn out and inspected under a microscope.
- Incisional or Excisional biopsy: The patient is kept under the supervision of regional anaesthesia, which makes the area senseless and the surgeon removes a large piece of a tumour which is an incisional way or else removes an entire affected part, an excisional one for further examination.
- For the tumours in chest or abdomen, general anaesthesia is used.
- ♦ Staging Surgery:
- Staging Surgery helps in determining the extent of cancer, this procedure is done by using small cameras (scopes) attached to a tube which is a flexible one, this process doesn’t involve in any incision because the scopes are inserted into the natural openings of the body. For this type, an endoscope is used in hollow body cavities and organs like lungs, urinary tract and intestinal tract, through which surgeons can view the suspicious areas that are not visible.
- Laparoscopy is mainly used to view the abdominal cavity; laparotomy involves a small incision in the cavity, carried out under regional anaesthesia, laparotomies are generally used only when the suspicious areas are unable to examine through less invasive procedures.
- Supportive Surgery is helpful in other cancer treatments in which some of the chemotherapy devices may have requirement of connecting device or part to insert into the body.
- ♦ Palliative Surgery:
- Palliative Surgery is used to ease the person from pain, disability or any other complications that occur due to advancement in cancer level. This will neither cure nor an anti-cancer treatment. It just improves the quality of life.
Transoral Laser Microsurgery
Minimally Invasive Surgery
- ♦ Endoscopic thyroid surgery
- ♦ Endoscopic throat cancer surgery
- ♦ Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for lung and esophageal cancers
- ♦ Endoscopic skull base tumor surgery
What is Minimally Invasive Surgery ?
Minimally invasive, or endoscopic, surgery takes advantage of advances in computer imaging and robotics to provide effective surgical cancer treatment with a much smaller impact on the patient. An endoscope is a long, thin tube with special lighting and a narrow lens through which the surgeon can view organs and tissue inside of the body. The endoscope is inserted through tiny incisions, often less than an inch in length, near the tumor location. A microscope provides an excellent image of the tumor. Small, specialized surgical instruments are also inserted through small incisions so that the surgeon can perform the operation without an external incision. Advantages of minimally invasive surgery include :
- ♦ Less blood loss
- ♦ Decreased need for blood transfusions
- ♦ Shorter hospital stays
- ♦ Decreased pain and need for postoperative pain medications
- ♦ Earlier resumption of regular diet
- ♦ Quicker recovery and return to normal activities
- ♦ Less scarring and improved cosmetic appearance